ProAlive Tincture supports diabetes, enhances sexual function, and More

ProAlive Ticture is approved by the Food and Drugs Authority(FDA) for general well-being.  The product is a pure organic extract that boosts immunity, aiding joint/muscle aches, controlling blood sugar, and enhancing sexual function.

It is made from Cyperus esculentus, Ricinodendron heudelotii, Eugenia caryophyiiata, and alstonia boonei.

In this article, I examine the scientific aspects of the ingredients in ProAlive Ticture for wellness.

Cyperus esculentus-Tiger Nut

Tiger nuts were one of the first plants cultivated in Egypt and are traditionally used as both food and medicine.

They’re rich in a variety of nutrients and have been linked to several health benefits — ranging from better digestion to a reduced risk of heart disease.

Rich in nutrients

Tiger nuts contain a variety of nutrients and beneficial plant compounds.

Their specific nutrient content depends on the type. There are three main varieties of tiger nuts:

  • black
  • brown
  • yellow

US Department of Agriculture reports that 1 ounce (28 grams) provides:

  • Calories: 143
  • Fiber: 9 grams
  • Carbs: 19 grams
  • Protein: 1 gram
  • Fat: 7 grams
  • Iron: 1–2% of the Daily Value (DV)
  • Phosphorus: 5–6% of the DV
  • Vitamin C: 2–8% of the DV
  • Magnesium: 7% of the DV
  • Zinc: 5–7% of the DV
  • Potassium: 3–5% of the DV
  • Calcium: 1% of the DV

Tiger nuts also contain a rich source of antioxidants (Jing et al. 2013). Another study by Badejo et al.( 2014) shows that germinating tiger nuts before eating them increases their antioxidant content.

Also,  tiger nuts contain antinutrients, such as phytates, oxalates, saponins, and tannins, which can reduce nutrient absorption in your gut.

A previous study by  Ekeanyanwu et al.  (2010) also reports that germinating or roasting the tubers before eating reduces their antinutrient levels, making it easier for your body to absorb and use the many nutrients they contain.


Improve digestion

Due to the high insoluble fiber content, tiger nut passes through the gut without being digested. As an insoluble fiber, they add bulk to the stools and help food move through the gut easily, reducing the likelihood of constipation(Yang et al. 2012).


Another study also found that tiger nuts also have resistant starch, a type of fiber that can feed the friendly bacteria in the gut, helping your digestion run smoothly ( Sánchez-Zapata et al. 2012).

The study also found that tiger nuts have enzymes, such as catalases, lipases, and amylases,  helping to break down foods in the gut, relieving gas, indigestion, and diarrhea.

Reduce blood sugar levels

One animal study(Ekeanyanwu et al.  2010) found that tiger nut extract may help reduce blood sugar levels. This may, in large part, be due to the high fiber content of the tubers, which may slow down the absorption of sugar in the gut.

Some other studies(Umeda et al. 2015; Suliburska et al. 2014) found that tiger nuts protein has a high proportion of the amino acid arginine, which may increase insulin production and sensitivity, both of which play an important role in blood sugar management.

The study used 9 grams of arginine in the human study, this is higher than the amount in a single serving of tiger nuts, which contains 1 gram of protein.

Other test-tube studies show that tiger nut extract may inhibit the action of carb-digesting enzymes in your gut.

Improve heart health

Some studies(Guasch-Ferré et al. 2020; Nocella et al. 2018) found that the high amount of monounsaturated fats in tiger nuts makes them heart-healthy olive oil.

Other studies(Estruch et al. 2018; Schwingshackl and Hoffmann G. 2014) found that diets rich in monounsaturated fats are linked to lower levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol and higher levels of HDL (good) cholesterol. They are also associated with a lower risk of heart attack, stroke, and death from heart disease.

A previous study by  Chukwuma et al.(2010) found that tiger nuts enhance blood circulation and a lower likelihood of blood clots — both of which can reduce your risk of heart disease.

 Boost immune system and help fight infections

In Prakash and  Ragavan(2009) test-tube study, tiger nut extracts were tested against many types of bacteria that can cause an infection in humans. The study found that tiger nut was effective against E. coliStaphylococcus, and Salmonella bacteria.

Another study by Seukep et al.(2013) also found that tiger nut extracts could also be effective at fighting antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.


Act as an aphrodisiac

Tiger nuts have been used to boost libido. In Ayurvedic medicine, it is used as an aphrodisiac. That said, few studies have investigated these supposed aphrodisiac properties.

Al-Shaikh et al.(2013) mouse study found that tiger nuts helped preserve testicular weight and sperm production following heavy metal poisoning.

Another rat study by Allouh et al.(2015),  found that consuming more tiger nuts for 30 days increased testosterone levels, boosted sexual activity, and reduced intromission time between mating sessions.

Akpi Seed- Ricinodendron heudelotii

Ricinodendron heudelotii has its origin from Senegal in West Africa to Sudan, Uganda, and Tanzania, and from Sudan down to the western coast of Sub-Saharan Africa to Angola.

The tree is known as munguella (Angola), njangsa (Cameroon), bofeko (Democratic Republic of Congo), wama (Ghana), okhuen (Nigeria), kishongo (Uganda), akpi (Ivory Coast), djansang, essang, ezezang and njasang. Two varieties of the tree species are recognized R. heudelotii var. heudelotii in Ghana and R. heudelotii var. africanum in Nigeria and westwards.

It is mostly used to treat edema, cure anemia, Blennorrhoea, cure diarrhea, strengthen premature Babies, treat cough, Treatment of Sexual Problems, Destruction of Worms, Treat baby fever, and relieve Labor Pain.

In this article, I examine the science of Ricinodendron heudelotii.

Nutrient Contents

The edible parts of the plant are the high nutritive contents of the kernels. The dried and ground kernels are used as a flavouring agent in some dishes in West and Central Africa. The paste of the ground kernels is used to thicken soups and stews. Oil can be obtained from the kernels.

Only a small amount of extracted seed oil is carried out. The oil has a yellowish colour and tastes similar to groundnut oil. Because of its high content of γ-tocopherol, the oil is very stable and becomes rancid only slowly. This oil is as interesting as cooking oil and margarine.

A recent study by Adome et al.(2022) also found that Ricinodendron seed oil contained a conjugated polyunsaturated fatty acid α-eleostearic acid (49.3%–51.1%).

A previous study by Hounsou-Dindin et al.(2021) reports that Ricinodendron heudelotii is a wild oil tree species native to sub-Saharan Africa. It is also found in Benin. Its oil is rich in essential fatty acids (Omega 3, 6), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K), and trace elements, essential for human health.


Constituent Quantity (%)
Water 3.1 +/- 0.8
Fatty acid 47.4-55.30
Crude protein 24.3-65.2
Total carbohydrates 5.6-9.3
Digestible carbohydrates 5.6-9.3
Crude fibres 8.9-9.3
Ash 10.5-17.8
Nitrogen 8.6 +/- 0.9
Dry extracts 97.8
pH 7.84
Energy value 495 kcal/100g


In the book The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa” by Burkil. H. M(1985-2004), the following benefits were highlighted:

  • The stem bark is taken by enema to prevent abortion
  • A decoction of the stem bark is used externally to wash and cicatrize sores
  • A decoction of the root bark is considered a powerful anti-dysenteric
  • The root bark is ground up into a powder then mixed with pepper and salt and used for treating constipation
  • A decoction of the bark is used in the treatment of blennorrhoea, cough, painful menstruation and as an antidote to poison
  • A bark-liquor is taken by pregnant women to relieve pains and to prevent miscarriage. It is also taken by women ‘to kill a worm that is in the bowels and which prevents them from breeding
  • Externally, the bark is used in lotions and baths to strengthen rachitic children and premature babies and to relieve rheumatism and oedemas
  • The pulped bark (also the leaves) is applied externally to treat fungal infections, to maturate abscesses, furuncles, and buboes
  • The bark is beaten and warmed, then tied to the body in the treatment of elephantiasis
  • The expressed sap is instilled in the eye in the treatment of filaria and ophthalmia
  • The leaves are used to treat dysentery, female sterility, oedemas, and stomach pains
  • A leaf decoction is taken by draught and in baths as a febrifuge
    The roots in Ivory Coast are considered aphrodisiac
  • Examination of various sources of the bark has found no active principles
  • Leaves and stems have been reported to contain an unnamed alkaloid.
  • The traditional use of the seed, husk, and latex as a remedy for gonorrhoea and diarrhoea may rest on the action of a resin found in the seed, as also the use for treatingClove (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb[Myrtaceae]) spice has been shown to possess antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties.One study by Batiha et al.(2020) found that the compounds in cloves improve liver health and stabilize blood sugar levels.In this article, I examine the science of eating cloves.

    Cloves, science


    The US Department of  Agriculture reports that one teaspoon(tsp) (2 grams (g)) of ground cloves contains:

    • Calories: 6
    • Carbs: 1 g
    • Fiber: 1 g
    • Manganese: 55% of the Daily Value (DV)
    • Vitamin K: 2% of the DV

    Clove manganese content is good for supporting brain function and building strong bones. Also, they do not provide significant amounts of nutrients apart from manganese.



    Batiha et al.(2020) study also found that cloves are rich in antioxidants. Cloves also contain a compound called eugenol, found to act as a natural antioxidant. Therefore, including cloves in your diet, along with other antioxidant-rich foods, can help improve your overall health.

    Liver health

    one animal study by Shojaeifard et al.(2022) found that clove extract enhanced liver damage caused by the toxic substance thioacetamide.  The antioxidant, eugenol is important for the liver.

    A previous study by  Bethesda(2019) found no evidence demonstrating that cloves support liver health in humans, and high doses can damage the liver.

    Xuesheng Han and Tory L. Parker(2017)  found that clove oil could fight cancer. For instance, Zari et al.(2021) found that the antioxidant, eugenol was found to have anticancer properties.


    Abdullah et al.(2021)  test-tube research found that eugenol promotes cell death in breast cancer cells.

    A previous study by Bethesda(2019) found eugenol to be toxic in high amounts, and too much could trigger liver damage, especially in children.

    Kill bacteria

    one study by Batiha et al.(2020) found that  Cloves have antimicrobial properties. A previous study by Cupta and Prakash(2013) found that coves support oral health,


    Blood sugar

    One study by Mohan et al.(2019) showed that cloves may help keep blood sugar under control. In this study, people with and without prediabetes who took 250 milligrams (mg) of clove extract daily for 30 days showed significantly less blood glucose after meals.

    A previous animal study(Ghaffar et al. 2017)  found nigricin, a compound in cloves, to enhance the uptake of sugar from the blood into cells, increase the secretion of insulin, and improve the function of cells that produce insulin in mice.

    Promote bone health

    Animal research by Hatem M and  Abuohashish(2018) found that eugenol may help improve bone mass. Also,  cloves have manganese, which is involved in the formation of bone and important to bone health.

    Reduce stomach ulcers

    Longo et al.(2021) animal study found that eugenol may help treat stomach ulcers.

    Also known as peptic ulcers, stomach ulcers are painful sores that form in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus.

    Another test-tube study by Panezai1 et al.(2021) recommends that clove oil may also have an effect against Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori), a bacteria that can trigger stomach problems such as ulcers and even cancer.

    Warnings, clove?

    • Eating clove: Eating small amounts is not likely to cause you harm. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved clove buds and clove oil as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) for use as an additive in food. That said, there isn’t enough evidence on the effect of ingesting clove in large amounts, especially for people who are pregnant or nursing. Stay on the safe side and stick to the amount recommended in the recipe.
    • Ingestion of clove oil: A study by Nejad et al.(2017) found that though clove oil has eugenol, the compound is in much higher concentrations when the clove is distilled into oil. For this reason, clove oil is unsafe to take by mouth, especially for children. Even small amounts of clove oil can cause severe side effects such as seizures, liver damage, and fluid imbalances. It can also lead to bleeding in people with bleeding disorders or during surgery.
    • Topical: one study by Ibrahim et al.(2017)  found that Clove oil or cream from clove flowers is generally safe for skin application. However, using clove oil on the gums can lead to irritation and damage.

    Drug interactions: Be careful if you’re taking any medications to manage blood clotting or manage your blood sugar, such as for diabetes, as the eugenol in clove may interfere with these drugs

Alstonia boonei

It is Popularly known as God’s tree or “Onyame dua” in Ghana(Adotey et al. 2012). The review also found that the plant parts have been traditionally used for their antimalarial, aphrodisiac, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and antipyretic activities, which have also been proven scientifically.

The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds such as echitamidine, Nα-formylechitamidine, boonein, loganin, lupeol, ursolic acid, and β-amyrin among which the alkaloids and triterpenoids form a major portion.

A previous study by Akinmoladun et al.(2007) also found that A. boonei was found to contain important minerals like calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and cardiac glycosides were among the phytochemicals detected together with the important vitamin, ascorbic acid. The Green Institute (2018) also found that it is used to enhance breast development. More human studies are needed.

Take Home

From the literature,  the ingredients used in the formulation of ProAlive Tincture have been shown in both animal and human studies to improve general well-being. ProAlive can be purchased from the Nyarkotey Herbal Pharma, Amrahia-Dodowa road, behind Potbelly.


Prof. Nyarkotey has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations to justify his write-ups. My articles are for educational purposes and do not serve as Medical advice for Treatment. I aim to educate the public about evidence-based scientific Naturopathic Therapies.


The writer is a Professor of Naturopathic Healthcare, a Medical Journalist, and a science writer. President, Nyarkotey University College of Holistic Medicine & Technology (NUCHMT)/African Naturopathic Foundation, Ashaiman, Ghana. E. mail: for more.

Nyarkotey Herbal Pharma has been set up to house quality natural products from all over the world.  You can now buy all your vitamins, herbs, supplements, homeopathy drugs, Ayurveda drugs and more. It is located at Amrahia,  Dodowa Road, behind Potbelly. We have qualified Naturopathic doctors managing the Natural Medicine Mall. We do deliveries as well. Call on: +233207844338/0541090045. Special consultation is also available for diabetics, hypertensive and cancer patients, and many more


  1. John Prosper Kwaku Adotey, Genevieve Etornam Adukpo, Yaw Opoku Boahen, Frederick Ato Armah, “A Review of the Ethnobotany and Pharmacological Importance of Alstonia booneiDe Wild (Apocynaceae)”, International Scholarly Research Notices, vol. 2012, Article ID 587160, 9 pages, 2012.
  2. Ibrahim IM, Elsaie ML, Almohsen AM, Mohey-Eddin MH. Effectiveness of topical clove oil on symptomatic treatment of chronic pruritus. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2017 Dec;16(4):508-511. doi: 10.1111/jocd.12342. Epub 2017 Apr 5. PMID: 28382655.
  3. Zari AT, Zari TA, Hakeem KR. Anticancer Properties of Eugenol: A Review. Molecules. 2021 Dec 6;26(23):7407. doi: 10.3390/molecules26237407. PMID: 34885992; PMCID: PMC8659182.
  4. SCUC (2006), Ndjanssang: Ricinodendron heudelotii, Field Manual for Extension Workers and Farmers (PDF), Southampton, UK: Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops, University of Southampton.
  5. LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2012-. Eugenol (Clove Oil) [Updated 2019 Oct 28]. Available from:
  6. Mohammadi Nejad S, Özgüneş H, Başaran N. Pharmacological and Toxicological Properties of Eugenol. Turk J Pharm Sci. 2017 Aug;14(2):201-206. doi: 10.4274/tjps.62207. Epub 2017 Aug 15. PMID: 32454614; PMCID: PMC7227856.
  7. Ghaffar S, Afridi SK, Aftab MF, Murtaza M, Hafizur RM, Sara S, Begum S, Waraich RS. Clove and Its Active Compound Attenuate Free Fatty Acid-Mediated Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle Cells and in Mice. J Med Food. 2017 Apr;20(4):335-344. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2016.3835. Epub 2017 Mar 24. PMID: 28338397.
  8. Longo B, Sommerfeld EP, Dos Santos AC, da Silva RCMVAF, Somensi LB, Mariano LNB, Boeing T, Faloni de Andrade S, de Souza P, da Silva LM. Dual role of eugenol on chronic gastric ulcer in rats: Low-dose healing efficacy and the worsening gastric lesion in high doses. Chem Biol Interact. 2021 Jan 5;333:109335. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2020.109335. Epub 2020 Nov 24. PMID: 33245926.
  9. Abdullah ML, Al-Shabanah O, Hassan ZK, Hafez MM. Eugenol-Induced Autophagy and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells via PI3K/AKT/FOXO3a Pathway Inhibition. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Aug 26;22(17):9243. doi: 10.3390/ijms22179243. PMID: 34502165; PMCID: PMC8430664.
  10. Mohan R, Jose S, Mulakkal J, Karpinsky-Semper D, Swick AG, Krishnakumar IM. Water-soluble polyphenol-rich clove extract lowers pre- and post-prandial blood glucose levels in healthy and prediabetic volunteers: an open label pilot study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2019 May 7;19(1):99. doi: 10.1186/s12906-019-2507-7. PMID: 31064377; PMCID: PMC6503551.
  11. Cupta C, Prakash D. Comparative study of the antimicrobial activity of clove oil and clove extract on oral pathogens. Dent Open J. 2021; 7(1): 12-15. doi: 10.17140/DOJ-7-144
  12. Xuesheng Han & Tory L. Parker (2017) Anti-inflammatory activity of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) essential oil in human dermal fibroblasts, Pharmaceutical Biology, 55:1, 1619-1622, DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2017.1314513
  13. Batiha GE, Alkazmi LM, Wasef LG, Beshbishy AM, Nadwa EH, Rashwan EK. Syzygium aromaticum L. (Myrtaceae): Traditional Uses, Bioactive Chemical Constituents, Pharmacological and Toxicological Activities. Biomolecules. 2020 Jan 30;10(2):202. doi: 10.3390/biom10020202. PMID: 32019140; PMCID: PMC7072209.
  14. Shojaeifard MB, Hojjati S, Vojdani S, Keshavarz S. Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Clove on Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity Animal Model: Effects Hydroalcoholic Extract of Clove Against Hepatotoxicity. Galen Med J. 2022 Nov 11;11:e1603. doi: 10.31661/gmj.v11i.1603. PMID: 36660448; PMCID: PMC9833295.
  15. Allouh MZ, Daradka HM, Abu Ghaida JH. Influence of Cyperus esculentus tubers (tiger nut) on male rat copulatory behavior. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Sep 23;15:331. doi: 10.1186/s12906-015-0851-9. PMID: 6400055; PMCID: PMC4579607.
  16. Seukep JA, Fankam AG, Djeussi DE, Voukeng IK, Tankeo SB, Noumdem JA, Kuete AH, Kuete V. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of seven Cameroonian dietary plants against bacteria expressing MDR phenotypes. Springerplus. 2013 Jul 31;2:363. doi: 10.1186/2193-1801-2-363. PMID: 23961425; PMCID: PMC3738912
  17. Prakash N, Ragavan B. Phytochemical observation and antibacterial activity of Cyperus esculentus L. Anc Sci Life. 2009 Apr;28(4):16-20. PMID: 22557327; PMCID: PMC3336333.
  18. Jing S, Ouyang W, Ren Z, Xiang H, Ma Z. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of Cyperus esculentus oil from Xinjiang, China. J Sci Food Agric. 2013 Apr;93(6):1505-9. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.5927. Epub 2012 Nov 9. PMID: 23138226.
  19. Badejo AA, Damilare A, Ojuade TD. Processing Effects on the Antioxidant Activities of Beverage Blends Developed from Cyperus esculentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Moringa oleifera Extracts. Prev Nutr Food Sci. 2014 Sep;19(3):227-33. doi: 10.3746/pnf.2014.19.3.227. PMID: 25320721; PMCID: PMC4195629.
  20. Umeda M, Hiramoto M, Watanabe A, Tsunoda N, Imai T. Arginine-induced insulin secretion in endoplasmic reticulum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015 Oct 30;466(4):717-22. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.09.006. Epub 2015 Sep 5. PMID: 26348775.
  21. Yang J, Wang HP, Zhou L, Xu CF. Effect of dietary fiber on constipation: a meta analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Dec 28;18(48):7378-83. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i48.7378. PMID: 23326148; PMCID: PMC3544045.
  22. Suliburska J, Bogdanski P, Szulinska M, Pupek-Musialik D, Jablecka A. Changes in mineral status are associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity in obese patients following L-arginine supplementation. Eur J Nutr. 2014;53(2):387-93. doi: 10.1007/s00394-013-0533-7. Epub 2013 May 25. PMID: 23708056; PMCID: PMC3925292.
  23. Guasch-Ferré M, Liu G, Li Y, Sampson L, Manson JE, Salas-Salvadó J, Martínez-González MA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Sun Q, Hu FB. Olive Oil Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk in U.S. Adults. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020 Apr 21;75(15):1729-1739. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2020.02.036. Epub 2020 Mar 5. PMID: 32147453; PMCID: PMC7233327.
  24. Nocella C, Cammisotto V, Fianchini L, D’Amico A, Novo M, Castellani V, Stefanini L, Violi F, Carnevale R. Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Cardiovascular Diseases: Benefits for Human Health. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2018;18(1):4-13. doi: 10.2174/1871530317666171114121533. PMID: 29141571.
  25. Sabiu S, Ajani EO, Sunmonu TO, Ashafa AOT. KINETICS OF MODULATORY ROLE OF Cyperus esculentus ON THE SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF KEY CARBOHYDRATE METABOLIZING ENZYMES. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2017 Jun 5;14(4):46-53. doi: 10.21010/ajtcam.v14i4.6. PMID: 28638866; PMCID: PMC5471481.
  26. Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, Covas MI, Corella D, Arós F, Gómez-Gracia E, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Fiol M, Lapetra J, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Serra-Majem L, Pintó X, Basora J, Muñoz MA, Sorlí JV, Martínez JA, Fitó M, Gea A, Hernán MA, Martínez-González MA; PREDIMED Study Investigators. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet Supplemented with Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts. N Engl J Med. 2018 Jun 21;378(25):e34. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1800389. Epub 2018 Jun 13. PMID: 29897866.
  27. Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G. Monounsaturated fatty acids, olive oil and health status: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Lipids Health Dis. 2014 Oct 1;13:154. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-13-154. PMID: 25274026; PMCID: PMC4198773.

By Prof Raphael Nyarkotey Obu


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here