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2 out of 5   Ghanaian men at risk of getting prostate cancer by age 50-Research

botchway August 30, 2019

By Raphael Nyarkotey Obu.

 

 

Prostate cancer is not an equal opportunity disease and I believe that unless we tackle the primary prevention of cancer i.e. stopping cancer before it starts, we are unlikely to see any improvement in the cancer situation in Ghana. There are many barriers to action on the primary prevention of cancer; cancer is also caused by lack of ‘political will’ power to fight it. In my view, the biggest barrier to addressing cancer services is the lack of action on primary prevention which necessitates greater resources into services in the first place.

Background:

Prostate cancer is underestimated subject in Ghana; yet more men are battling with the disease. There is also more studies revealing the high incidence and death of the disease in Ghanaian men.  For instance, according to Egote et al 2019, prostate cancer affect 40.07% of men in Brong -Ahafo Region by age 50.  This is a 6-Year Single Center Retrospective Study published in the journal Health.

Population at Risk of Prostate Cancer in Ghana

The final results of the 2010 Population and Housing Census (PHC) showed that the total population of Ghana as at 26th September, 2010 was 24,658,823. The results indicated that Ghana’s population increased by 30.4 percent over the 2000 population figure of 18,912,079. The recorded annual intercensal growth rate in 2010 was 2.5 percent as against 2.7 percent recorded in 2000.

The results revealed that there were 12,633,978 females and 12,024,845 males. This implied that females constituted 51.2 percent of the population and males 48.8 percent, resulting in sex ratio of 95 males to 100 females. It also showed increase in population density from 79 people per square km in 2000 to 103 per square km in 2010.

 

METHODOLOGY

 

National Breakdown (2010)

Sex                 Figure                                    Percentage               Ratio              Annual            

                                                                                                                        Growth Rate

Females        12,633,978              51.2%                    0.100            2.5%

Males                         12,024,845              48.8%                    0.95             2.5%

24,658,823

 

 

Projected Population growth for 2019

                                                            Brong Ahafo (B/A)             National

Male Population (2010)                 1,145,271                         12,024,845

Male Population (2019)                 1,402,957                         14,730,435

[Projected at 2.5% p.a.]

 

 

 

Population at risk of Prostate Cancer in 2019

 

Brong Ahafo [40.07%]        562,165

 

National [40.07%]              5,902,485

 

 

Working out the Ghanaian Men Life Time Risk of Prostate Cancer

  1. The researcher used different types of data about who gets prostate cancer annually in Ghana based on the literature reviews:
  2. The number of men diagnosed with prostate cancer and their ages annually
  • Information on annual deaths  from Prostate cancer based on the Ghana Health Service(GHS) 2015 report
  1. Information about the population of Male in Ghana (from the Population and Housing Census 2010 report (PHC) and projected 2.5 annual growth rate.
  2. Egorte et al 6-Year Single Center Retrospective Study, 2019 findings which placed Men in the Brong-Ahafo Region to 40.07% of been affected by prostate cancer to represent the national outlook of the disease.

Results:

  1. The Researcher used all this information to calculate Ghanaian men’s lifetime risk of getting prostate cancer.
  2. The Researcher found out that 4 out of every 10 male  or 2 out of every 5   Ghanaian men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer at some  point in their lives.
  • The researcher will regularly review this work to make sure that men get the most up-to-date information about prostate cancer risk in Ghana.
  1. Using the Brong Ahafo figure of 40.07% as national average brings 5,902,485 of the estimated current male population of 14,730,435 (based on the 2010 PHC male figure of 12,024,845 as adjusted by 2.5% annual growth rate) at risk of the disease.
  2. Using the Brong Ahafo figure of 40.07% as national average brings 5,902,485 of the estimated current male population of 14,730,435 (based on the 2010 PHC male figure of 12,024,845 as adjusted by 2.5% annual growth rate) at risk of the disease. This implies that 4 out of every 10 male or 2 out of every 5 male of whatever age in Ghana are at risk of getting prostate cancer and this must call for a national dialogue by all the stakeholders.
  3. This means 4 out of every 10 male  or 2 out of every 5 male   of whatever age in Ghana is at risk and this must call a national dialogue of all stakeholders.
  • Annual prostate cancer death is 75% in Ghana based on Ghana Health Service 2015 data(fig 1, )

 

What is Lifetime Risk?

There are different ways of explaining a man’s risk of getting prostate cancer.  For instance, according to research studies, Black men have three times chances more likely to develop prostate cancer than white men of the same age. This way of explaining risk is called relative risk and it means the difference in risk of one group of people compared to another. According to the Prostate cancer UK, “This information is still correct – it is just a different way of explaining a man’s risk of getting prostate cancer”.

So that we know that, 4 out of every 10 male  or 2 out of every 5  Ghanaian male   will be diagnosed with prostate cancer at some point in their lives. This is their lifetime risk of getting prostate cancer. What it means is that, the risk that a Ghanaian male has of being diagnosed with the disease at some point during their life.  According to reviews, people find lifetime risk a clear way of understanding their chances of getting a disease such as prostate cancer.

Fig 1

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